When studying computer networking, the term logical networking stack is often heard.
The most famous example will be ISO OSI's logical networking stack that consists of seven layers, which are:
- Datalink, and
For those facts, I have the following questions:
1. What is the purpose of having a logical networking stack at the first place?
2. Why does ISO OSI's consist of seven layers instead of three or ten?
Lyrics: Gulzar, Sayeed Quadri, Asish Pandit & Mayur Puri
MP3 Bitrate: 320Kbps VBR
Covers Included : Yes
Size : 150 MB
01. (00:05:26) Sukhwinder Singh, Sunidhi Chauhan - 01. Marjaani
02. (00:04:48) Neeraj Shridhar, Tulsi Kumar - 02. Love Mera Hit hit
03. (00:04:48) Neeraj Shridhar - 03. You Get Me Rockin & Reeling
कुंभारासारखा गुरू नाही रे जगात
वरि घालितो धपाटा, आत आधाराला हात
आधी तुडवी तुडवी मग हाते कुरवाळी
ओल्या मातीच्या गोळ्याला येई आकृती वेगळी
घट जाती थोराघरी, घट जाती राऊळात
कुणी चढून बसतो गावगौरीच्या मस्तकी
कुणी मद्यपात्र होतो रावराजांच्या हस्तकी
आव्यातली आग नाही पुन्हा आठवत
कुणी पुजेचा कलश, कुणी गोरसाचा माठ
देता आकार गुरूने ज्याची त्याला लाभे वाट
घट पावती प्रतिष्ठा गुरू राहतो अज्ञात
- ग. दि. माडगूळकर
Back when I was in the last half part of my third semester of my undergraduate study, there was a fever among my classmates to solve Sudoku puzzles. I just tried to scratch some of those puzzles but find them not exciting because I only need to employ a trial-and-error method. Later, in the beginning of my fourth semester, I tried to find an algorithm to solve those puzzles and ended up with a method that I will describe here.
Brought Belkin Wireless G USB Adapter this week. My home ubuntu 8.10 recognised it and networked without any additional settings besides wireless security. Just to let you know.
For all the crowds from India:
If you aren't a registered voter, please register yourself, and make sure you vote! It is time that the IT-class starts exercising this right and create a difference.
Also, do spread the word, blog about it and let more people know:
A CEO from my previous organisation mentioned something to me that he had experienced in the dot com bubble burst. He was a CEO then too. "Running a company, is a lot of responsiblity. As the company grows, so does the dependency of a lot of families and their economies on the company. A mistake you make does not only affect you but the families of all your employees. And that is 'responsibility'."
As the global economies are spiralling down, companies are being conservative.
If you can't live without amputing your arm, left without an option, you'll opt to do so.
I remember when we had to hire a couple of freshers in one of the really small startups I was working for. While I did that, the first thing in my mind was to hope that the company stays around for at
least 1 year, since that is a sizable experience for the freshers to start their career with. And I made them fully aware of the fact too, since like all freshers, they had multiple options to consider.
I understand that running a business means you have to take hard decisions. And hard decisions are bitter. If worst comes to worst, of course, you have no option but to trim down. But "hard decisions" or
"business decisions" are certainly not the way to shrug away from the responsibility. A workforce cut is a particularly bitter experience. But there are ways in which you can alleviate that.
The relationship between employer and employee is mutual. If you treat them as family, they treat you as a family and the whole thing is good for you, your employees, your product and your customers. (I am not
exaggerating, there are companies that go out of their way to ensure that their strongest asset, the employees, are comfortable.) And the way you trim down tells a lot about your character and that of your
company. It shows whether you treat your employees as family, or as cattle. And if it is the latter that gets revealed, well, all those employees who have fortunately saved their asses this time around, take a warning cue from the event and do the neeful.
I needed to recompile my code to test it against UML but it always complained about the unlock_kernel() function. The original code comes from subversity.net
So I decided to slightly modify the code to make it works for UML and x86. I did not have the chance to test it for other architectures.
data E a b = L (E a b) | R b deriving (Show) fold f acc  = R acc fold f acc (x:xs) = let x' = f acc x in x' `seq` (L $ fold f x' xs) lift2 f = \x y -> par_eval x y where par_eval (L x) (L y) = par_eval x y par_eval x@(R _) (L y) = par_eval x y par_eval (L x) y@(R _) = par_eval x y par_eval (R x) (R y) = R $ f x y lift1 f (L x) = lift1 f x lift1 f (R x) = R (f x) sum' xs = fold (+) 0 xs len' xs = fold (\x y->succ x) 0 xs avg xs = (sum' xs) / (len' xs) main = print $ avg [1..1e7] instance Eq b => Eq (E a b) where a == b = case (lift2 (==) a b) of (R x) -> x instance Num b => Num (E a b) where (+) = lift2 (+) (*) = lift2 (*) fromInteger = R . fromInteger abs = lift1 abs signum = lift1 signum instance Fractional b => Fractional (E a b) where (/) = lift2 (/) fromRational = R . fromRational
I have upgraded the kernel 2.6.9-55.0.12.ELsmp to 2.6.9-78.ELsmp.
After upgrading i got the following Error in message logs.Then i rebooted the server.now it is working. But i want to know why was the kernel panic and can it happen again;
kernel: kernel BUG at kernel/exit.c:904!
kernel: invalid operand: 0000 [#1]
LSE - Linux Security Engine
LSE is an open source security project for GNU/Linux (Kernel 2.6 series).
It employs a "white list" approach to allow/disallow program execution on your computer.
It's an easy way to prevent user running applications which can be malicious [virus, backdoor, rootkit, ...] or simply unwanted.
I am using linux-2.6.25-rc7 distribution,U-boot-v2 bootloader and IMX27ADS target.I built uboot.bin from U-boot-v2 and it is working fine on IMX27ADS.
I want to boot linux kernel image on IMX27ADS.
A friend of mine would like to try to implement a new system call based on the example in Chapter 8 of Linux Kernel Module Programming Guide 2.6 Series (http://www.dirac.org/linux/writing/lkmpg/2.6/lkmpg-2.6.0.html) in Linux kernel 220.127.116.11. The example requires that the kernel exports `sys_call_table' symbol. Although Linux kernel 2.4.x, on which the guide is based, still exposes that symbol, Linux kernel 2.6.x does not do that anymore for it is harmful (e.g., it is unimaginable if a module replace the system call of `link' with `unlink' via the table). The guide comes with a patch to expose the table in Linux kernel 2.6.x. However, the patch does not work in particular for Linux kernel 18.104.22.168. So, I helped him to do so.
I have already covered phishing in few of my earlier posts here:
I just received an email from 'firstname.lastname@example.org' indicating me that
Attention! Your AXIS Online Banking Account has been violated!
Someone with IP Address 22.214.171.124 tried to access your personal account!
In accordance with Axis Online Banking User Agreement and to ensure that
your account has not been compromised, access to your account was limited.
Your account access will remain limited until this issue has been resolved.
Please follow the link below to resolve this problem:
With logo and all completely there... Sounds pretty official. The problem is, I don't have an Axis Bank account :-)
So I thought ofcourse this is phishing. This can immediately be found out by hovering your mouse over the link specified. Usually, the href tag points to the real phishers website, whereas the contents of the "a" tag is the string of your bank's website. It was confirmed this is certainly a phishing site.
Then I thought lets go where they are really pointing me to and see what is happening. As I clicked it, FireFox Phishing Protection kicked-in and informed me that this site is reported for phishing attacks. Now that was good! Protection from some real danger! I wonder what happens when you open the link in IE....
Anyway, this kind of phishing detection is black-listing based phishing detection. It works, as we just saw, but it doesn't work on zero-day attacks. For it to work, people have to report this site to be a phishing site. And there is a window, between the site coming up and people reporting that site. And the window is sufficient for the phishers to gain access to vital account information of many many innocent people.
That reminds me of a project guided by the Dreamz Group by Amey. The project had a browser plugin. They had come up with a bunch of rules or suspicions that you can detect on typical phished websites. If the rules/suspicions match, a warning is displayed. For example, what we did above by hovering the mouse pointer is one such rule. And solutions like these raise the bar quite a lot. I am not sure if there are any commercially available solutions for these. But there certainly should be some around.